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Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus secreting Panton-Valentine leukocidin: a review of case reports

Lukas Kreienbuehl1*, Emmanuel Charbonney2 and Philippe Eggimann3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Anaesthesiology, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland

2 Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada

3 Department of Intensive Care, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), and University of Lausanne, Switzerland

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Annals of Intensive Care 2011, 1:52  doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-52

Published: 22 December 2011

Abstract

Background

Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-secreting Staphylococcus aureus is a highly lethal infection that mainly affects healthy children and young adults. Both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may carry the PVL-phage, but the majority of publications relate to community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) or mixed patient groups. This study focuses on necrotizing pneumonia due to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains, with the purpose to determine factors associated with outcome.

Methods

We report a patient with PVL secreting MSSA necrotizing pneumonia and performed a systematic review of similar case in the literature. We analyzed factors associated with outcome.

Results

A total of 32 patient descriptions were retained for analysis. Septic shock (p = 0.007), influenza-like prodrome (p = 0.02), and the absence of a previous skin and soft-tissue infection (p = 0.024) were associated with fatal outcome. In multivariate analysis, influenza-like prodrome (odds ratio (OR), 7.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-44.76; p = 0.028) and absence of previous skin and soft-tissue infection (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.86; p = 0.036) remained significant predictors of death.

Conclusions

Influenza-like prodrome may be predictive of adverse outcome in PVL-secreting MSSA necrotizing pneumonia. In contrast, previous skin and soft-tissue infection may be associated with improved prognosis.